KEYS TO GENERA IN CENTRAL AMERICA [pdf]

(Guatemala and Belize to Panama)

by William R. Anderson and Christiane Anderson

Key to specimens bearing flowers [fruits]
1. Flowers all cleistogamous (ca. 1.5 mm in diameter, without visible petals, androecium, or gynoecium). [photo]
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1. Flowers (some or all) chasmogamous (at least 6 mm in diameter, with showy petals, the androecium and gynoecium visible).
2. Petals pink and/or white or white turning red or yellowish in age, pink turning reddish in age, lilac, or lilac fading to white.
2. Petals yellow or greenish yellow, or yellow with a red central blotch, or yellow turning red or orange, or yellow and red.
3. Bracteoles (some) terminating in a stalked peltate gland; trees or shrubs.
3. Bracteoles all eglandular or bearing 1 or 2 tiny abaxial or basal glands; trees, shrubs, or woody vines.
4. Anthers with 2 dark longitudinal wings on outer locules; ovary tricarpellate; styles 3, slender and subulate, tapering to minute stigmas; lamina eglandular in upper (adaxial) surface.
Lophanthera hammelii: photos, drawing
4. Anthers unwinged; ovary bicarpellate; styles 2, stout, untapered, the stigmas broad; lamina bearing a row of small glands in upper (adaxial) surface, the glands distal and set in from margin.
Spachea - sample taxa - photos: S. membranacea - drawing: S. correae
5. Trees or shrubs; inflorescence unbranched.
5. Woody vines, or if described as shrubby the inflorescence branched.
6. Inflorescence terminating a leafy shoot, an elongated pseudoraceme or with some bracts subtending few-flowered cincinni.
6. Inflorescence lateral, axillary to current leaves or bracts or above the scars of fallen leaves or bracts, consisting of fascicles, umbels, corymbs, or short condensed pseudoracemes.
Byrsonima - drawing: B. bucidifolia
7. Pedicels sessile; stipules intra- and epipetiolar, the members of a pair proximally connate and distally distinct; leaves eglandular; anthers with the outer locules bearing introrse longitudinal wings, the connective exceeding locules at apex; styles slender and subulate with minute stigmas; fruit dry, dehiscent.
Pterandra - photos: P. isthmica - drawing: P. mcphersonii
7. Pedicels pedunculate; stipules interpetiolar, distinct or each connate with a stipule from opposite petiole to form an interpetiolar pair; leaves with lamina usually bearing 2 (–10) glands impressed in abaxial surface; anthers unwinged, the connective not exceeding locules at apex; styles of uniform thickness, the apex with a large internal or subterminal stigma and dorsally rounded, truncate, or hooked; fruit fleshy, mostly indehiscent (a few species with the pyrenes separating at maturity).
Malpighia - sample taxa - photos: M. albiflora, M. emarginata, M. glabra,
M. mexicana, M. romeroana
- drawings: M. glabra, M. stevensii, M. wendtii
8. Corolla radially symmetrical or nearly so, the petals subequal in size and shape but one with the claw wider than the other 4, pure white; pedicels sessile; sepals all eglandular.
Psychopterys - sample taxa - drawings: P. multiflora, P. ornata, P. psilocarpa, P. rivularis
8. Corolla bilaterally symmetrical, the posterior petal obviously different from the other 4, the petals white in a few species but mostly at least partly pink or lilac; pedicels mostly pedunculate, sessile in a few species; sepals all eglandular or (much more often) the lateral 4 sepals biglandular and the anterior sepal eglandular.
9. Styles with stigmas terminal and without any sort of dorsal extension at apex; anthers strongly heteromorphic. [sample styles]
Banisteriopsis - sample taxa - photos: B. caapi, B. muricata - drawing: B. muricata
9. Styles with stigmas internal, the apex dorsally rounded, truncate, acute, or extended into a short hook; anthers ± alike. [sample styles]
10. Flowers borne in umbels or corymbs of (2) 3–7 (–10); glands usually present on abaxial surface of lamina, swollen to peltate, or if flush with leaf surface the petals abaxially winged.
Heteropterys - sample taxa - photos: H. brachiata, H. hammelii - drawing: H. brachiata
10. Flowers borne in elongated to condensed pseudoracemes; glands usually present on lamina, on margin or abaxial surface; petals abaxially smooth.
11. Glands on lamina (if present) strictly marginal; calyx glands sericeous, especially toward margins; stipules absent or borne on base of petiole.
Heteropterys prunifolia
11. Glands on lamina (if present) flush with leaf surface; calyx glands glabrous; stipules borne on stem between petioles.
Mascagnia - sample taxa - photos: M. divaricata, M. ovatifolia - drawings: M. divaricata, M. vacciniifolia
12. Bracteoles larger than bracts, globose-cymbiform, borne just below flower, enclosing bud until flower opens; peduncles well developed, the pedicels absent or up to 2 (–5) mm long in fruit.
Mezia includens: drawing
12. Bracteoles mostly similar to bracts or smaller than them, if larger not enclosing bud until flower opens; peduncles absent or short relative to the well-developed pedicels.
13. Petals abaxially ± densely sericeous or appressed-tomentose.
13. Petals abaxially glabrous or sparsely sericeous on midrib.
14. Bracts, bracteoles, and sepals bearing many stalked glands all around the margin.
Christianella mesoamericana: drawing
14. Bracts, bracteoles, and sepals with their margins eglandular.
15. Styles apparently 2, the anterior style rudimentary or absent.
Dicella aciculifera: drawing
15. Styles 3, all well developed and ± equal.
16. Lateral 4 sepals each bearing 1 large central abaxial gland and the anterior sepal eglandular, or all 5 sepals eglandular.
Jubelina wilburii: photos, drawing
16. Lateral 4 sepals each bearing 2 large abaxial glands, the anterior sepal eglandular.
17. Apex of styles with stigmas quite terminal and without any sort of dorsal extension; anthers pubescent on locules; pedicels sessile.
Diplopterys - sample taxon - D. platyptera: drawing
17. Apex of styles with stigmas internal and dorsally rounded or truncate; anthers glabrous; pedicels pedunculate.
18. Stipules borne on petiole at or just above base; stigmas transversely expanded.
Callaeum - sample taxon - drawing: C. malpighioides
18. Stipules borne on stem between petioles; stigmas round.
Carolus sinemariensis: drawing
19. Stamens 5.
Gaudichaudia - sample taxa - photos: G. albida, G. hexandra - drawings: G. albida, G. hexandra
19. Stamens 10.
20. Styles slender and subulate, tapering to minute stigmas; trees, shrubs, or subshrubs. [sample styles]
20. Styles slender to stout, of uniform thickness or widened at apex, the stigmas large; trees, shrubs, or vines. [sample styles]
21. Leaves eglandular; pedicels sessile in most species; fruit fleshy, the seeds borne in an indehiscent trilocular stone.
Byrsonima - sample taxa - photos: B. crassifolia, B. spicata - drawing: B. crassifolia
21. Leaves mostly bearing glands on petiole and/or proximally on margin of lamina; pedicels pedunculate; fruit dry, breaking apart into 3 1-seeded cocci.
Galphimia - sample taxa - photos: G. gracilis, G. speciosa - drawings: G. gracilis, G. speciosa
22. Petals concealed by sepals during enlargement of bud, until anthesis.
22. Petals (at least the outermost) exposed during enlargement of bud.
23. Leaves densely and persistently metallic-sericeous below.
Niedenzuella stannea: drawing
23. Leaves glabrate below or only very thinly sericeous, the hairs not hiding epidermis.
Heteropterys - sample taxa - photos: H. laurifolia, H. leona - drawings: H. laurifolia, H. lindeniana
24. Petals strongly dissimilar in color and margin, the lateral 4 pure yellow and ± entire, the posterior reddish or yellow with red veins and deeply lacerate-fimbriate.
Adelphia hiraea: photos, drawing
24. Petals ± alike in color and margin, although posterior petal may differ from lateral 4 in size, shape, and stance.
25. Apex of styles (2 or all 3) dorsally extended into a long hook or flap-bearing appendage.
25. Apex of styles dorsally rounded, truncate, acute, or short-hooked.
Stigmaphyllon - sample taxa - photos: S. bannisterioides, S. ciliatum, S. ellipticum, S. puberum - drawings: S. adenophorum, S. bannisterioides, S. hypargyreum, S. lindenianum, S. panamense, S. puberum, S. retusum, S. tonduzii
26. Trees or shrubs; stipules borne on base of petiole; 1 or both bracteoles often bearing 1 (2) abaxial glands; carpels 2 or 3, developing into an indehiscent fleshy fruit; styles 2 or 3, distinct or partly to completely connate.
26. Woody vines, occasionally shrubby but then without the characters of stipules, bracteoles, carpels, fruits, and styles given above for Bunchosia.
Bunchosia - sample taxa - photos: B. argentea, B. macrophylla, B. nitida, B. polystachya - drawings: B. grayumii, B. swartziana, B. veluticarpa
27. Petiole biglandular at base.
27. Petiole eglandular at base.
Heteropterys - sample taxa - H. minutiflora; H. obovata: drawing
28. Pedicels sessile or raised on a peduncle up to 1.5 mm long.
28. Pedicels pedunculate, the peduncle mostly over 1.5 mm long.
29. Apex of styles with stigmas internal and dorsally rounded, truncate, or acute; stipules 1–8 mm long, subulate, borne on petiole between base and apex, persistent.
Hiraea - sample taxa - photos: H. barclayana, H. grandifolia, H. reclinata - drawings: H. barclayana, H. fagifolia, H. faginea, H. grandifolia, H. reclinata, H. smilacina, H. ternifolia
29. Apex of styles with stigmas terminal and without any sort of dorsal extension; stipules borne on stem between petioles, triangular, less than 1 mm long, persistent or deciduous.
30. Petals lacerate, laciniate, or fimbriate; flowers borne mostly in umbels of 4, rarely in umbels or very short pseudoracemes of 3–4 pairs.
30. Petals entire or denticulate; flowers borne in short dense pseudoracemes of 8–25.
Banisteriopsis - sample taxa - photos: B. elegans - drawing: B. lyrata
Bronwenia - sample taxa - photo: B. cornifolia - drawings: B. acapulcensis, B. wurdackii
31. Flowers borne in umbels of 4 (–6).
31. Flowers borne in elongated to congested pseudoracemes, or in corymbs of more than 6 flowers.
32. Lamina densely and persistently metallic-sericeous below with the epidermis ± completely hidden by the vesture, the hairs originally bronze or golden but fading to silver in age; glands on lamina borne on abaxial surface between midrib and margin.
Heteropterys macrostachya
32. Lamina mostly ± glabrescent below at maturity, if persistently subsericeous the lamina glands restricted to margin.
Tetrapterys - sample taxa - photos: T. goudotiana, T. mucronata, T. subaptera, T. tinifolia - drawings: T. discolor, T. heterophylla,
T. mucronata, T. schiedeana, T. tinifolia
33. Petioles of larger leaves (1.5–) 2 cm long or longer, usually bearing a pair of large glands at or slightly below apex or slightly above apex against midrib.
Stigmaphyllon bogotense: photo, drawing
33. Petioles of larger leaves up to 0.9 cm long, eglandular.
34. Flowers borne in corymbs.
Mascagnia - sample taxa - drawings: M. allopterys, M. tomentosa
34. Flowers borne in elongated pseudoracemes.
Tetrapterys - sample taxa - photo: T. styloptera - drawings: T. seleriana, T. styloptera
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Gaudichaudia - sample taxa - photos: G. albida, G. hexandra - drawings: G. albida, G. hexandra