KEYS TO GENERA IN CENTRAL AMERICA [pdf]

(Guatemala and Belize to Panama)

by William R. Anderson and Christiane Anderson

Key to specimens bearing fruits [flowers]
1. Fruit with a soft, fleshy, edible exocarp, indehiscent or in a few species the flesh-covered pyrenes separating at maturity; trees, shrubs, or subshrubs.
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1. Fruit dry; trees, shrubs, or slender to woody vines.
2. Leaves and bracteoles eglandular; styles slender and subulate, the stigmas minute; inflorescence terminating a leafy shoot, an elongated pseudoraceme or with some bracts subtending few-flowered cincinni. [sample styles]
Byrsonima - sample taxa - photos: B. crassifolia, B. spicata - drawing: B. bucidifolia, B. crassifolia
2. Leaves usually bearing glands impressed in abaxial surface of lamina; bracteoles eglandular or some bracteoles bearing large abaxial glands; styles slender to stout, of uniform thickness or widened at apex, the stigmas large; inflorescence axillary, without leaves or with at most 1 pair of leaves, elongated or condensed and corymbiform or umbellate. [sample styles]
3. Flowers borne in elongated pseudoracemes; bracteoles (one or both) often bearing 1 large abaxial gland, sometimes 2; styles 2 or 3, distinct or partly to completely connate and then apparently only 1; stipules borne on base of petiole.
Bunchosia - sample taxa - photos: B. argentea, B. macrophylla, B. nitida, B. polystachya - drawings: B. grayumii, B. swartziana, B. veluticarpa
3. Flowers borne in umbels or corymbs or short condensed pseudoracemes; bracteoles all eglandular; styles 3, distinct; stipules borne on stem between petioles.
Malpighia - sample taxa - photos: M. albiflora, M. emarginata, M. glabra, M. mexicana, M. romeroana - drawings: M. glabra, M. stevensii, M. wendtii
4. Fruit indehiscent at maturity, a hard nut subtended by 5 dry wings formed by enlargement of the sepals; woody vines; Costa Rica.
Dicella aciculifera: drawing
4. Fruit schizocarpic at maturity, breaking apart into mericarps; trees, shrubs, or slender to woody vines.
5. Mericarps or cocci smooth or at most ribbed, unwinged; trees or shrubs.
5. Mericarps winged, the wing(s) reduced in some species to winglets; trees, shrubs, or slender to woody vines.
6. Fruit consisting of 2 mericarps, developing from a bicarpellate ovary; styles 2, stout, untapered, the stigmas broad; lamina bearing a row of small glands in upper (adaxial) surface, the glands distal and set in from margin.
Spachea - sample taxa - photos: S. membranacea - drawing: S. correae
6. Fruit consisting of 3 mericarps, developing from a tricarpellate ovary; styles 3, slender and subulate, tapering to minute stigmas; lamina eglandular in upper (adaxial) surface.
7. Bracteoles (some) terminating in a stalked peltate gland.
Lophanthera hammelii: photos, drawing
7. Bracteoles all eglandular.
8. Flowers borne in sessile or subsessile fascicles of 4–6 in the axils of leaves or bracts or above the scars of fallen leaves or bracts; leaves eglandular; pedicels sessile.
Pterandra - photos: P. isthmica - drawing: P. mcphersonii
8. Flowers borne in terminal elongated pseudoracemes or panicles of several pseudoracemes; leaves mostly bearing glands on petiole and/or proximally on margin of lamina; pedicels pedunculate.
Galphimia - sample taxa - photos: G. gracilis, G. speciosa - drawings: G. gracilis, G. speciosa
9. Mericarps with outgrowths or wings very short relative to size of nut.
9. Mericarps samaroid, with either dorsal or lateral wing(s) (or both) well developed.
10. Flowers borne in elongated many-flowered pseudoracemes; sepals revolute at apex.
Heteropterys - sample taxa - photos: H. leona - drawing: H. lindeniana
10. Flowers borne in umbels of (3) 4 (–6); sepals erect or appressed.
11. Pedicels subsessile or borne on peduncles up to 0.2 times as long as pedicels; Atlantic coast.
Stigmaphyllon bannisterioides - photos, drawing
11. Pedicels and peduncles subequal in length; Pacific coast of Panama.
Tetrapterys subaptera: photos
12. Samaras with dorsal wing dominant, the nut bearing on its sides only short winglets or crests or quite smooth.
12. Samaras with lateral wing(s) dominant, the dorsal wing smaller or reduced to a winglet or crest, or absent.
13. Wing of samara with the abaxial edge thickened, the veins diverging and branching from it toward the thinner adaxial edge.
Heteropterys - sample taxa - photos: H. brachiata, H. hammelii, H. laurifolia - drawings: H. brachiata, H. laurifolia, H. obovata
13. Wing of samara with the adaxial edge thickened, the veins diverging and branching from it toward the thinner abaxial edge.
14. Lamina densely and persistently metallic-sericeous below.
14. Lamina glabrate below at maturity, or thinly sericeous or tomentose, or tomentose with T-shaped hairs.
15. Petiole eglandular or bearing 1 or 2 pairs of small raised peltate glands on distal half; lamina often bearing 2–4 (5) pairs of small peltate and often stipitate glands on abaxial surface.
Banisteriopsis muricata: photos, drawing
15. Petiole bearing 1 pair of large prominent glands at or just above or below the apex; other glands on lamina none or on margin.
16. Pedicels sessile or rarely raised on peduncles up to 1.5 mm long; flowers borne 6–8 per umbel or very short dense pseudoraceme.
Banisteriopsis lyrata: drawing
16. Pedicels raised on peduncles (1.5–) 2 mm long or (often) longer; flowers borne 8–35 per umbel or congested pseudoraceme.
Stigmaphyllon - sample taxa - photos: S. puberum - drawings: S. hypargyreum, S. puberum
17. Lamina deeply auriculate at base with the lobes overlapping in larger leaves and fringed on the margin with filiform glands up to 5.5 mm long.
Stigmaphyllon ciliatum: photos
17. Lamina cuneate to cordate at base without overlapping lobes, the margin eglandular or with sessile glands.
18. Flowers borne in umbels or congested pseudoracemes of 7–50.
19. Flowers mostly borne in umbels, if in congested pseudoracemes the pedicels raised on peduncles at least 3 mm long.
Stigmaphyllon - sample taxa - photos: S. bogotense, S. puberum - drawings: S. adenophorum, S. hypargyreum, S. lindenianum, S. panamense, S. puberum, S. retusum, S. tonduzii
19. Flowers borne in elongated pseudoracemes; pedicels sessile or raised on peduncles up to 1.5 mm long.
Bronwenia - sample taxa - photos: B. acapulcensis, B. cornifolia,
B. wurdackii
- drawings: B. acapulcensis, B. wurdackii
18. Flowers borne in umbels of (3) 4 (–6).
Stigmaphyllon ellipticum: photos
20. Pedicels raised on peduncles 2.5–34 mm long, expanded distally.
20. Pedicels sessile, not expanded distally.
21. Nut of samara smooth or at most rugose on sides.
Banisteriopsis - sample taxa - photos: B. caapi, B. elegans - drawing: B. lyrata
21. Nut of samara bearing crests or winglets on sides.
Diplopterys - sample taxon - D. platyptera: drawing
22. Samara with the lateral wings rarely entire, usually each irregularly divided into 3–5 narrowly rectangular segments.
Mascagnia allopterys: drawing
22. Samara with the lateral wings not irregularly divided.
23. Samara asymmetrical or, if symmetrical, V- or Y-shaped, at maturity dangling from a slender threadlike carpophore attached to underside of wing.
Gaudichaudia - sample taxa - photos: G. albida, G. hexandra - drawings: G. albida, G. hexandra
23. Samara symmetrical (X-shaped, elliptical, orbicular, triangular, or butterfly-shaped), not dangling from a carpophore at maturity.
24. Samara with 4 lateral wings, 2 on each side.
Tetrapterys - sample taxa - photos: T. discolor, T. goudotiana, T. mucronata, T. styloptera, T. tinifolia - drawings: T. discolor, T. heterophylla, T. mucronata, T. schiedeana, T. seleriana, T. styloptera, T. tinifolia
24. Samara with 1 continuous lateral wing or 2, 1 on each side.
25. Samara with the lateral wings confluent at least at base, confluent or notched to distinct at apex; lamina glands, if present, borne on abaxial surface between midrib and margin.
25. Samara with the 2 lateral wings distinct at both base and apex; lamina glands, if present, strictly marginal except often a pair at base against midrib.
26. Flowers borne in elongated or congested pseudoracemes or corymbs of 10 or more flowers, sometimes fewer on lateral branches of the inflorescence; samara up to 36 mm across.
Mascagnia - sample taxa - photos: M. divaricata, M. ovatifolia, M. vacciniifolia - drawings: M. divaricata, M. vacciniifolia
26. Flowers borne in umbels of 4 or corymbs of 6; samara at least 45 mm across in its longest dimension.
27. Bracteoles globose-cymbiform, borne just below flower with the pedicel absent or very short [up to 2 (–5) mm long in fruit], the inner bracteole enclosing bud until anthesis, the outer enclosing bud and inner bracteole, the bracteoles persistent or deciduous before maturation of the fruit; samara orbicular, about as wide as high; anterior sepal eglandular, the lateral 4 each bearing 2 large, compressed, distinct or partially to completely connate abaxial glands; stipules borne on stem between petioles, caducous; Panama.
Mezia includens: photo, drawing
27. Bracteoles flat or concave but not enclosing bud, borne below a well-developed pedicel, persistent or deciduous in fruit; samara elliptical, much wider than high; sepals all eglandular or the lateral 4 each bearing 1 large abaxial gland; stipules borne on base of petiole, persistent; Panama and Costa Rica.
Jubelina wilburii: photos, drawing
28. Pedicels sessile.
29. Flowers borne in umbels of 4–many; stipules 1–8 mm long, subulate, borne on petiole between base and apex; sepals all eglandular or the lateral 4 bearing (6–) 8 abaxial glands.
Hiraea - sample taxa - photos: H. barclayana, H. fagifolia, H. faginea, H. grandifolia, H. reclinata, H. smilacina - drawings: H. barclayana, H. fagifolia,H. faginea, H. grandifolia, H. reclinata, H. smilacina, H. ternifolia
29. Flowers borne in elongated pseudoracemes; stipules 0.1–0.9 mm long, triangular, borne on petiole at or slightly above base or on stem beside petiole, occasionally absent; sepals all eglandular.
Psychopterys - sample taxa - photos: P. multiflora, P. ornata, P. rivularis - drawings: P. multiflora, P. ornata, P. psilocarpa, P. rivularis
28. Pedicels usually raised on a peduncle, rarely subsessile.
30. Bracts, bracteoles, and sepals bearing many stalked glands all around the margin.
Christianella mesoamericana: drawing
30. Bracts, bracteoles, and sepals with their margins eglandular.
31. Lamina densely and persistently metallic-sericeous below; Panama and Costa Rica.
Niedenzuella stannea: drawing
31. Lamina glabrous below or at most sparsely sericeous.
32. One bracteole of each pair bearing 1 large abaxial gland; pedicel shorter than peduncle or about the same length; petiole eglandular or (often) bearing 2 large protuberant glands on distal half.
Adelphia hiraea: photos, drawing
32. Both bracteoles eglandular; pedicel much longer than peduncle; petiole eglandular or bearing 2–4 (–6) small glands at various heights.
33. Stipules borne on petiole at or just above base.
Callaeum - sample taxa - photos: C. malpighioides, C. nicaraguense - drawing: C. malpighioides
33. Stipules borne on stem between petioles.
Carolus sinemariensis: photo, drawing
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